According to 1960s CIA reports which were recently released under the Freedom of Information Act, the USSR had looked extensively into metaphysical phenomena such as extrasensory perception (ESP) and telepathy during the Cold War.
At the time, there was great interest in the potential to use telepathic communication to interface directly with machines, a field generally referred to as cybernetics.
In one of the reports, Soviet scientist D.A. Kerminov had told a CIA agent how his team had attempted to record (or "tape") the central nervous system signals of a pianist and broadcast them into the arms of another person who had been otherwise unable to play the piano.
The agent who conducted the interview also gleaned hints of other experiments too.
"Kerimov claimed that Vasilyev had been able to demonstrate very strong ESP (extra-sensory perception) with certain subjects, but only certain persons are capable of receiving the 'waves," he wrote.
"Some of the ESP, in which Kerminov admittedly believed, involved not merely guessing events, but the prediction of future random events."
Of course the United States had also conducted its own secretive research into metaphysical phenomena at around the same time, including the use of remote viewing to spy on the Soviets.
It's also likely that both were involved in even more 'out there' experiments that we have yet to hear about.
Whether or not either side saw any genuine success, however, remains a topic of debate.
You can check out the reports below: